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    2010年考研英语冲刺阅读理解专项训练(36)
    作者:培训吧 来源:px8.com 更新日期:2010-1-21
      [英译汉]
      Scientists and critical thinkers always use logical reasoning.
      (1)Logic allows us to reason correctly, but it is a complex topic and not easily learned; many books are devoted to explaining how to reason correctly, and we can not go into the details here. However, I must point out that most individuals do not reason logically, because they have never learned how to do so.
      (2) Logic is not an ability that humans are born with or one that will gradually develop and improve on its own, but is a skill or discipline that must be learned within a formal educational environment. Emotional thinking, hopeful thinking, and wishful thinking are much more common than logical thinking, because they are far easier and more congenial to human nature. Most individuals would rather believe something is true because they feel it is true, hope it is true, or wish it were true, rather than deny their emotions and accept that their beliefs are false.
      (3)Often the use of logical reasoning requires a struggle with the will, because logic sometimes forces one to deny one’s emotions and face reality, and this is often painful. But remember this: emotions are not evidence, feelings are not facts, and subiective beliefs are not substantive beliefs. Everysuccessful scientist and critical thinker spent years learning how to think logically, almost always in a formal educational context. Some people can learn logical thinking by trial and error, but this method wastes time, is inefficient, is sometimes unsuccessful, and is often painful.
      (4)The best way to learn to think logically is to study logic and reasoning in a philosophy class, take mathematics and science courses that force you to use logic, read great literature and study history, and write frequently. Reading, writing, and math are the traditional methods that young people learned to think logically, (i. e. correctly), but today science is a fourth method. Perhaps the best way is to do a lot of writing that is then reviewed by someone who has critical thinking skills.
      (5)Most people never learn to think logically many illogical arguments and statements are accepted and unchallenged in modern society--often leading to results that are counterproductive to the good of society or even tragic--because so many people don’t recognize them for what they are. [380 words]
      超纲词汇
      Congenial adj.合意的,相宜的
      Counterproductive adj.起相反作用的
      全文翻译
      科学家和批判性思想家总是使用逻辑推理。
      (1)逻辑能帮助我们正确思考。但是,逻辑是一门复杂的学l司,并非轻易就能掌握。有很多专门解释如何正确思考的书籍·此处不便详述。不过,我必须指出·多数人不会逻辑推理,因为他们从来也没学过如何逻辑推理。
      (2)逻辑不是人生来就有的能力,也不是逐渐自然而然就能养成并提高的能力,而是一种必须在正规的教育环境中才能学会的技能或修炼。感性思维、希望思维及愿望思维远比逻辑思维普遍,因为它们容易得多,也更适合人类的天性。多数人宁愿相信某事是真的,就因为他们觉得、希望或但愿它是真的;而不会否定自己的情感,认为自己的观点错误。
      (3)进行逻辑思考往往需要与自己的意愿做较量,因为有时逻辑迫使人否定自己的情感,必须正视现实,这往往很痛苦。但是,请记住:情感不等于证据,感受不等于事实,主观信念不等予实际看法。每一位成功的科学家和批判思想家都经过多年才学会如何有逻辑地思考,而且几乎总是在正规的教育背景下学会的。有些人可以通过反复实践学会逻辑思考,但是这种方法既浪费时间又缺乏效率,有时并不成功,而且常常很痛苦。
      (4)学会逻辑思考的最佳途径包括:在哲学课上学习逻辑和推理、修读必须进行逻辑思考的数理课程、阅读文学巨著并研究历史,以及经常写作。阅读、写作和数学通常是年青人学习逻辑思维(即正确思维)的方法,然而·如今学习科学是第四种方法。也许学习逻辑思考的最佳途径是大量写作,并请那些懂批判性思维的人来修改。
      (5)大多数人根本不学逻辑思考。在当代社会中,许多不合逻辑的论证和观点得到承认,没有受到质疑,原因在于那么多人根本不了解其实质,基结果往往危害社会利益,甚至带来灾难。
      【参考译文】
      (1)逻辑能帮助我们正确思考。但是,逻辑是一门复杂的学问,并非轻易就能掌握。有很多专门解释如何正确思考  的书籍,此处不便详述。
      (2)逻辑不是人生来就有的能力,也不是逐渐自然而然就能养成并提高的能力,而是一种必须在正规的教育环境中  才能学会的技能或修炼。
      (3)进行逻辑思考往往需要与自己的意愿做较量,因为有时逻辑迫使人否定自己的情感,必须正视现实,这往往很  痛苦。
      (4)学会逻辑思考的最佳途径包括:在哲学课上学习逻辑和推理、修读必须进行逻辑思考的数理课程、阅读文学巨  著并研究历史,以及经常写作。
      (5)大多数人根本不学逻辑思考。在当代社会中,许多不合逻辑的论证和观点得到承认,没有受到质疑,原因在于  那么多人根本不了解其实质,其结果往往危害社会利益,甚至带来灾难。
      【句结构解析】
      (1)Logic allows US to reason correctly。butit is a complex topic and not easily Iearned;many books are de—  voted to explaining how to reason correctly.and we can not go into the details here.
      (2)Logic is not an ability[that humans are born with]Or one[that will gradually develop and improve on its own],but is a skill or discipline[that must be learned within a formal educational environment].
      (3)Often the use of logical reasoning requires a struggle with the will,because logic sometimes forces one to de—  ny one’S emotions and face reality]。and this is often painful.
      (4)The best way[to learn to think logically]is[1]to study logic and reasoning in a philosophy class,take mathe—  matics and science courses(that force you to use logic),read great literature and study history,and write  frequently].
      (5)Most people never learn tO think logically;many illogical arguments and statements are accepted and unehal—  lenged in modern society--often leading to results[that are counterproductive to the good of society or even  tragic]--[because so many people don’t recognize them for(what they are)].

     
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